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TITLE
DECLARATION
CERTIFICATE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF APPENDICES
NATURE OF THE STUDY
I. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Innovations in Instructional Practices
1.2 Importance of Science Teaching
1.3 Importance of Learning Chemistry
1.4 Need and Significance of the Study
1.5 Statement of the Problem
1.6 Meaning and Definition of Important Terms
1. lnformation Processing Models
1.7 Objectives of the Study
1.8 Hypotheses
1.9 Methodology in Brief
1.10 Tools Used
1.11 Statistical Techniques Used
1.12 Scope and Limitations of the Study
1.13. Organisation of the Report
II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Relevant Theories of Instruction
2.2 Instructional Strategies in General
2.3 Models of Teaching
III. THEORETICAL CONSTRUCTS OF MODELS OF TEACHING
MODELS OF TEACHING
I. lnformation Processing Models
II. Personal Models
Ill. Social Interaction Models
IV. Behaviour Modification Model
3.1.1 Concepts for Describing a Model
3.1.2 Concept Attainment model
What is a Concept
Modality of the Exemplars
Types of Concepts
Variations in CAM
1. Reception Oriented CAM
2. Selection Oriented CAM
3. Unorganized Materials Model
The Syntax of the Model
Syntax of the Reception Model of Concept Attainment
Phase one: Presentation of Data and Identification of Concept
Phase two: Testing Attainment of the Concept.
Phase three: Analysis of Thinking Strategies.
Thinking Strategies
Syntax of the Selection Model of Concept Attainment
Thinking Strategies
Social System
Principles of Reaction
Support System
Effects of the Model
CAM
The Concept Attainment Model
3.1.3 Inquiry training model
Planning for Activities
Implementing Suchman Inquiry Activities
Principles of Reaction
Social System (Role of the teacher and the students)
Support System
instructional and Nurturant effects
The Suchman Inquiry Model
3.1.4 Advance organizer model of Teaching
Theory of AOM
Goals and Assumptions
Characteristics of Reception Learning
Overview of the Ausubel Model
Planning for Ausubel Activity
Implementing Activities
Syntax of the Advance Organiser Model of Teaching
Phase 1: Presentation of Advance Organiser
Phase 2: Presentation of Learning Task or Material
Phase 3: Strengthening Cognitive Organisation
Progressive Differentiation
Integrative Reconciliation
Various Components in the Application of the Model
The Ausubel Model
IV. METHODOLOGY
4.1 The Variables Selected
4.2 Selection of Class and Unit
4.3 Sample of Students
4.4 Tools
4.4.1 Lesson Transcripts
4.4.1.1 Lesson Transcripts According to CAM
4.4.1.2 Lesson Transcripts According to AOM
4.4.1.3 Lesson Transcripts According to ITM
4.4.1.4 Lesson Transcripts According to the CM
4.4.2 Test
4.4.2.1 The Design
A. Weightage to Objectives
4.1 Weightage to Objectives
B. Weightage to Content
4.2.1 Weightage to Content - Class VIII
4.2.2 Weightage to Content - Class IX
4.2.3 Weightage to Content - Class X
4.2.4 Weightage to Content - Class XI
4.2.5 Weightage to Content - Class XI I
C. Weightage to Difficulty Level
D. Weightage to Form of Questions
4.4.2.2 Blue Print
4.3 Weightage to Difficulty Level
4.4.1 Blueprint of the Test - Class VIII
4.4.2 Blueprint of the Test - Class IX
4.4.3 Blueprint of the Test - Class X
4.4.4 Blueprint of the Test - Class XI
4.4.3 Attitude Scale
4.4.3.1 Construction of the Attitude Scale
4.4.5 Blueprint of the Test - Class XIl
Thurstones Method
Likerts Method
4.4.3.2 Administration of the Pilot Test
4.4.3.3 Scoring
4.5 Details Regarding the Samples Selected for the Pilot Study (Attitude Scale)
4.4.3.4 Selection of Criterion Groups
4.4.3.5 Item Analysis
4.6 Calculation of T- Value for item No.2
4.7 Details Regarding the Calculation of T- Value
4.4.3.6 Preparation of the Final Attitude Scale
4.8 Details Regarding the Statements Selected for the Final Scale
4.4.3.7. Validity of the Attitude Scale
4.4.3.8 Reliability of the Attitude Scale
4.4.3.9 Administration of the Tool
4.4.3.10 Scoring
4.4.4 Kerala University Verbal Group Test of lntelligence
4.4.4.1 Test Components
4.4.4.2 Description of the Sub Tests
A. Analogy
8. Classification
C. Proverbs
4.9 Test Components and Other Details (Intelligence Test)
D. Number Series
E. Arithmetical Reasoning
4.4.4.3 Standardisation
4.4.4.4 Scoring
4.4.4.5 Interpretation
4.4.4.6 Reliability
4.4.4.7 Validity
4.10 Split - Half Reliability Coefficient
4.11 Inter- Test Correlation Matix
4.4.5 Observation Schedules for I P M
4.5 Procedure for Collecting the Data
4.6 Techniques of Statistical Analysis
V. ANALYSIS OF THE DATA
5.1 Rationale Behind the Use of the IPM and CM (Conventional Method) in terms of Objectives
5.1.1 Objectives of CAM and Blooms Taxonomy
5.1.2 Objectives of AOM and Blooms Taxonomy
5.1.3 Objectives of ITM and Blooms Taxonomy
5.1.4 Objectives of Conventional Method of Teaching and Blooms Taxonomy
5.2 Pupil -Performance at a Glance
5.2.1 Pupil-Performance of the Two Groups Before Experiment -class Vlll
5.1 Frequency and Various Statistics of Pre-Test Scores of the Group Taught through IPM - Class VIII
5.2.2 Pupil Performance of the Two Groups -After Experiment - Class Vlll
5.2 Frequency and Various Statistics of Pre-Test Scores of the Group Taught through CM - Class VIII
5.3 Frequency and Various Statistics of Post-Test Scores of the Group Taught through IPM - Class VIII
5.2.3 Pupil - Performance of the Two Groups Before Experiment - Class IX
5.4 Frequency and Various Statistics of Post-Test Scores of the Group Taught through CM - Class VIII
5.5 Frequency and Various Statistics of Pre-Test Scores of the Group Taught through IPM - Class IX
5.2.4 Pupil - Performance of the Two Groups After Experiment - Class IX
5.6 Frequency and Various Statistics of Pre-Test Scores of the Group Taught through CM - Class IX
5.7 Frequency and Various Statistics of Post-Test Scores of the Group Taught through IPM -Class IX
5.2.5 Pupil - Performance of the Two groups Before Experiment - Class X
5.8 Frequency and Various Statistics of Post-Test Scores of the Group Taught through CM - Class IX
5.9 Frequency and Various Statistics of Pre-Test Scores of the Group Taught through IPM - Class X
5.2.6 Pupil - Performance of the Two Groups After Experiment - Class X
5.10 Frequency and Various Statistics of Pre-Test Scores of the Group Taught through CM - Class X
5.11 Frequency and Various Statistics of Post-Test Scores of the Group Taught through IPM - Class X
5.2.7 Pupil - Performance of the Two Groups - Before Experiment - Class XI
5.12 Frequency and Various Statistics of Post-Test Scores of the Group Taught through CM - Class X
5.13 Frequency and Various Statistics of Pre-Test Scores of the Group Taught through IPM - Class XI
5.2.8 Pupil - Performance of the Two Groups After Experiment Class XI
5.14 Frequency and Various Statistics of Pre-Test Scores of the Group Taught through CM - Class XI
5.15 Frequency and Various Statistics of Post-Test Scores of the Group Taught through IPM - Class XI
5.2.9 Pupil - Performance of the Two Groups - Before Experiment - Class XII
5.16 Frequency and Various Statistics of Post-Test Scores of the Group Taught through CM - Class XI
5.17 Frequency and Various Statistics of Pre-Test Scores of the Group Taught through IPM - Class XI I
5.2.10 Pupil - Performance of the Two Groups - After Experiment - Class -XI
5.18 Frequency and Various Statistics of Pre-Test Scores of the Group Taught through CM - Class XII
5.19 Frequency and Various Statistics of Post-Test Scores of the Group Taught through IPM - Class XII
5.3 Interpretation Using Analysis of Covariance
5.20 Frequency and Various Statistics of Post-Test Scores of the Group Taught through CM - Class XI
5.3.1.1. Comparison of IPM and CM -Test as a Whole -Class Vlll
5.21 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups - Class VIII
5.22 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre - Test and Post - Test of the Experimental and Control Groups
5.23 Adjusted Means of Scores for the Post -Test of Students in Experimental and Control Groups
5.3.1.2 Comparison of IPM and CM - with respect to the Knowledge Level - Class Vlll
5.24 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups - Knowledge Level
5.25 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups with respect to Knowledge Level
5.3.1.3 Comparison of IPM and CM -with respect to theComprehension level -class Vlll
5.26 Adjusted Means of Scores with respect to Knowledge Level of Students in the Two Groups
5.27 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups - Comprehension Level
5.28 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups with respect to Comprehension Level
5.29 Adjusted Means of Scores with respect to Comprehension Level of Students in the Two Groups
5.3.1.4 Comparison of IPM and CM - with respect to the Application level - Class Vlll
5.30 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups - Application Level
5.31 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups with respect to Application Level
5.32 Adjusted Means of Scores with respect to Application Level of Students in the Two Groups
5.3.1.5 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Scores of High Intelligence Categories Class Vlll
5.33 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.34 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups under the High Intelligence Categories
5.35 Adjusted Means of Scores in the High Intelligence Categories of Students in the Two Groups
5.3.1.6 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Scores of the Low Intelligence Categories Class Vlll
5.36 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.37 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups under the Low Intelligence Categories
5.3.1.7 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Scores - Higher Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale - Class Vlll
5.38 Adjusted Means of Scores in the Low Intelligence Categories of Students in the Two Groups
5.39 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.40 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups Higher Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale
5.41 Adjusted Means of Scores for the Post-Test of Students in the Two Groups. Higher Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale
5.3.1.8. Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Scores - Lower Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale -Class Vlll
5.42 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.43 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups Lower Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale
5.44 Adjusted Means of Scores for the Post-test of Students in the Two Groups-Lower Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale
5.3.1.9 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Scores of Scientific Attitude - Class Vlll
5.45 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.46 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups with respect to Scientific Attitude.
5.47 Adjusted Means of Scores with respect to Scientific Attitude in the Two Groups
5.4.1 Comparison of the Pre-Test and Post-Test Scores of Scientific Attitude when IPM is used -Class Vlll
5.48 Results of the Test of Significance of the Difference between the Means of the Pre-Test and Post-Test Scores of the IPM Group.
5.4.2 Comparison of the Pre-Test and Post-Test Scores of Scientific Attitude when CM is used -Class Vlll
5.49 Results of the Test of Significance of the Difference between the Means of the Pre-Test and Post-Test Scores of the CM Group.
5.5.1 Analysis of the Entries of the Observation Schedule Class Vlll
5.50 The Scores Obtained for the Observation Schedule of CAM
5.51 The Scores Obtained for the Observation Schedule of ITM
5.3.2.1 Comparison of IPM and CM -Test as a Whole -Class IX
5.52 The Scores Obtained for the Observation Schedule of AOM
5.53 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups - Class IX
5.54 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups
5.55 Adjusted Means of Scores for the Post-Test of Students in the Experiment and Control Groups
5.3.2.2 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Knowledge Level - Class lX
5.56 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups-Knowledge Level
5.57 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups with respect to Knowledge Level
5.3.2.3 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Comprehension Level -Class IX
5.58 Adjusted Means of Scores with respect to Knowledge Level of Students in the Two Groups.
5.59 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups - Comprehension Level
5.60 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups with respect to Comprehension Level
5.61 Adjusted Means of Scores with respect to Comprehension Level of Students in the Two Groups
5.3.2.4 Comparison of IPM with CM with respect to the Application Level - Class IX
5.62 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups - Application Level
5.63 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups with respect to Application Level
5.64 Adjusted Means of Scores for the Post-Test of Students in the Experimental and Control Groups
5.3.2.5 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Scores of High intelligence Categories - Class IX
5.65 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.66 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups under the High Intelligence Categories
5.67 Adjusted Means of Scores in the High Intelligence Categories of Students in the Two Groups
5.3.2.6 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Scores of Low intelligence Categories - Class IX
5.68 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.69 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups under the Low Intelligence Categories
5.3.2.7 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to Scores-HigherCategories on Scientific Attitude Scale - Class IX
5.70 Adjusted Means of Scores in the Low Intelligence Categories of Students in the Two Groups
5.71 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.72 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups Higher Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale
5.73 Adjusted Means of Scores for Post-Test of Students in the Two Groups. Higher Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale
5.3.2.8 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Scores-LowerCategories on Scientific Attittude Scale -Class IX
5.74 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.75 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups Lower Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale
5.76 Adjusted Means of Scores for the Post-Test of Students in the Two Groups-Lower Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale
5.3.2.9 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to Scores of Scientific Attitude Class IX
5.77 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control groups
5.78 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups with respect to Scientific Attitude.
5.79 Adjusted Means of Scores with respect to Scientific Attitude in the Two Groups
5.4.3. Comparison of the Pre-Test and Post-Test Scores of Scientific Attitude when IPM is used - Class IX
5.80 Results of the Test of Significance of the Difference between the Means of the Pre-Test and Post-Test Scores of the IPM Group.
5.4.4. Comparison of the Pre-Test and Post-Test Scores of ScientificAttitude - when CM is used-Class IX
5.81 Results of the Test of Significance of the Difference between the Means of the Pre-Test and Post-Test Scores of the CM Group.
5.5.2. Analysis of the Entries of the Observation Schedule - Class IX
5.82 The Scores Obtained for the Observation Schedule of CAM
5.83 The Scores Obtained for the Observation Schedule of ITM
5.3.3.1 Comparison of IPM and CM -Test as a Whole -Class X
5.84 The Scores Obtained for the Observation Schedule of AOM
5.85 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control groups - Class X
5.86 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post- Test of the Experimental and Control Groups
5.87 Adjusted Means of Scores for the Post-Test of Students in Experimental and Control Groups
5.3.3.2 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Knowledge Level -Class X
5.88 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Expermental and Control Groups
5.89 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups with respect to Knowledge Level
5.3.8.3 Comparison of IPM and CM -with respect to the Comprehension level - class X
5.90 Adjusted Means of Scores with respect to Knowledge Level of Students in the Two Groups
5.91 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.92 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post- Test of the Experimental and Control Groups with respect to Comprehension Level
5.93 Adjusted Means of Scores with respect to Comprehension Level of Students in the Two Groups
5.3.3.4 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Application Level - Class X
5.94 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.95 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups with respect to Application Level
5.96 Adjusted Means of Scores for the Post-Test of Students in the Experimental and Control Groups
5.3.3.5 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Scores of High Intelligence Categories-Class X
5.97 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.98 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups under the High Intelligence Categories
5.99 Adjusted Means of Scores in the High Intelligence Categories of Students in the Two Groups
5.3.3.6 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Scores of Low Intelligence Categories-Class X
5.100 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.101 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimer: al and Control Groups under the Low lntelliger: e Categories
5.102 Adjusted Means of Scores in the Low Intelligence Categories of Students in the two Groups
5.3.3.7 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Scores of Higher Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale-Class X
5.103 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.104 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experiment and Control Groups-Higher Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale
5.3.3.8 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Scores of Lower.Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale -Class X
5.105 Adjusted Means of Scores for Post-Test of Students in the Two Groups. Higher Cate: Dries on Scientific Attitude Scale
5.106 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.107 Analysis of Covariance of Scores. of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimer.al and Control Groups Lower Categories on Scientific.- titude Scale
5.3.3.9 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Scores of Scientific Attitude - Class X
5.108 Adjusted Means of Scores for Post-Test of Students in the Two Groups-Lower Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale
5.109 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.110 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups with respect to Scientific Attitude.
5.111 Adjusted Means of Scores with respect to Scientific Attitude in the Two Groups
5.4.5 Comparison of the Pre-Test and Post Test Scores of ScentificAttitude When IPM is used -Class X
5.4.6 Comparison of the Pre-Test and Post Test Scores of Scientific Attitude - When CM is used -Class X
5.112 Results of the Test of Significance of the Difference between the Means of the Pre-Test and Post-Test Scores of the IPM Group.
5.5.3.4nalysis of the Entries of the Observation Schedule Class X
5.113 Results of the Test of Significance of the Difference between the Means of the Pre-Test and Post-Test Scores of the CM Group.
5.114 The Scores Obtained for the Observation Schedule of CAM
5.3.4.1 comparison of IPM and CM -Test as a Whole - Class XI
5.115 The Scores Obtained for the Observation Schedule of ITM
5.116 The Scores Obtained for the Observation Schedule of AOM
5.117 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups - Class XI
5.118. Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups
5.119 Adjusted Means of Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.3.4.2 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Knowledge Level - Class XI
5.120 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.121 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post- Test of the Experimental and Control Groups with respect to Knowledge Level
5.122 Adjusted Means of Scores with respect to Knowledge Level of Students in the Two Groups
5.3.4.3 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to Comprehension Level - Class XI
5.123 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.124 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups
5.125 Adjusted Means of Scores with respect to Comprehension Level of Students in the Two Groups
5.3.4.4 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to Application Level -Class XI
5.126 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.127 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post- Test of the Experimental and Control Groups
5.128 Adjusted Means of Scores with respect to Application Level of Students in the Two Groups
5.3.4.5 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Scores of the High Intelligence Categories -Class XI
5.129 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.130 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post- Test of the Experimental and Control Groups under the High Intelligence Categories
5.131 Adjusted Means of Scores in the High Intelligence
5.3.4.6 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Scores of the Low Intelligence Categories - Class XI
5.132 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.133 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups under the Low Intelligence Categories
5.3.4.7 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Scores- HigherCategories on Scientific Attitude Scale-Class XI
5.134 Adjusted Means of Scores in the Low Intelligence Categories of Students in the Two Groups
5.135 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.136 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post- Test of the Experimental and Control Groups Higher Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale
5.137 Adjusted Means of Scores for Post-Test of Students in the Two Groups. Higher Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale
5.3.4.8 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Scores -LowerCategories on Scientific Attitude Scale -ClassXI
5.138 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.139 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups Lower Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale
5.140 Adjusted Means of Scores for the Post-test of Students in the Two Groups-Lower Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale
5.3.4.9 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Scores of Scientific Attitude - ClassXl
5.141 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.142 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups with respect to Scientific Attitude.
5.143 Adjusted Means of Scores of Experimental and Control Groups for the Post-Test of Students with respect to Scientific Attitude
5.4.7 Comparison of the Pre-test and Post test Scores of Scientific Artitude when IPM is used - Class XI
5.4.8 Comparison of the Pre-test and Post test Scores of Scientific Attitude when CM is used
5.144 Results of the Test of Significance of the Difference between the Means of the Pre-Test and Post-Test Scores of the IPM Group.
5.5.4 Analysis of the Entries of the Observation Schedule
5.145 Results of the Test of Significance of the Difference between the Means of the Pre-Test and Post-Test Scores of the CM Group.
5.146 The Scores Obtained for the Observation Schedule of CAM
5.3.5.1 Comparison of IPM and CM -Test as a Whole-Class XII
5.147 The Scores Obtained for the Observation Schedule of ITM
5.148 The Scores Obtained for the Observation Schedule of AOM
5.149 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups-Class Xil
5.150 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post- Test of the Experimental and Control Groups
5.151 Adjusted Means of Scores for the Post-Test of Students in the Experimental and Control Groups
5.3.5.2 Comparison of IPM and CM - with respect to the Knowledge level Class - XII
5.152 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.153 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups with respect to Knowledge Level
5.154 Adjusted Means of Scores with respect to Knowledge Level of Students in the Two Groups
5.3.5.3 Comparison of IPM and CM - with respect to Comprehension level - Class XI1
5.155 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.156 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups with respect to Comprehension Level
5.157 Adjusted Means of Scores with respect to Comprehension Level of Students in the Two Groups
5.3.5.4 Comparison of IPM and CM - with respect to Application level- Class XII
5.158 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.159 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test Scores of the Experimental and Control Groups with respect to Application Level
5.160 Adjusted Means of Scores with respect to Application Level of Students in the Two Groups
5.3.5.5 Comparison of IPM and CM - with respect to the Scores of the High Intelligence Categories- Class XII
5.161 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.162 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of Experimental andGroups under the High Intelligence Categories
5.163 Adjusted Means of Scores in the High Intelligence Categories of Students in the Two Groups
5.3.5.6 Comparison of IPM and CM - with respect to the Scores of the Low Intelligence Categories - Class XII
5.164 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.165 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups under the Low Intelligence Categories
5.3.5.7 Comparison of IPM and CM - with respect to the Scores of theHigher Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale- Class XII
5.166 Adjusted Means of Scores in the Low Intelligence Categories of Students in the Two Groups
5.167 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.168 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups Higher Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale
5.3.5.8 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Scores - Lower Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale- Class XII
5.169 Adjusted Means of Scores for Post-Test of Students in the Two Groups. Higher Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale
5.170 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.171 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post- Test of the Experimental and Control Groups Lower Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale
5.172 Adjusted Means of Scores for the Post-test of Students in the Two Groups-Lower Categories on Scientific Attitude Scale
5.3.5.9 Comparison of IPM and CM with respect to the Scores - of Scientific Attitude -Class XII
5.173 Analysis of Variance of the Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
5.174 Analysis of Covariance of Scores of the Pre-Test and Post-Test of the Experimental and Control Groups with respect to Scientific Attitude.
5.175 Adjusted Means of Scores of Experimental and Control Groups for the Post-Test of Students with respect to Scientific Attitude
5.4.9 Comparison of the Pre - Test and Post Test Scores of Scientific Attitude When IPM is used -Class XII
5.4.10 Comparison of the Pre - Test and Post Test Scores of Scientific Attitude - When CM is used -Class XII
5.176 Results of the Test of Significance of the Difference between the Means of the Pre-Test and Post-Test Scores of the IPM Group.
5.5.5 Analysis of the Entries of the Observation Schedule
5.177 Results of the Test of Significance of the Difference between the Means of the Pre-Test and Post-Test Scores of the CM Group.
5.178 The Scores Obtained for the Observation Schedule of CAM
5.179 The Scores Obtained for the Observation Schedule of (TM
5.180 The Scores Obtained for the Observation Schedule of AOM
VI. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1 Objectives of the Study
6.2 Summary of the Procedures
6.1 Consolidated Results of Analysis of Covariance for Post-Test Scores of Pupils in the Experimental and Control Groups.
6.2 Consolidated Results of Analysis of Adjusted Means of Post-Test Scores in the Experimental and Control Groups.
6.3 Results of Test of Significance of the Difference between the Means of the Pre-Test and Post-Test Scores on Scientific Attitude Scale of IPM and CM Group.
6.3 Summary of Major Findings
6.4 Conclusions
6.5 Tenability of the Hypothesis
6.6 Suggestions
6.6.1 Suggestions for Implementations
6.6.2 Suggestions for Further Research
REFERENCES
APPENDIX I. LESSON TRANSCRIPTS BASED ON IPM
APPENDIX II. LESSON TRANSCRIPTS BASED ON CM
APPENDIX Ill. ACHIEVEMENT TESTS IN CHEMISTRY
APPENDIX IV. A TEST OF SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE FOR SECONDARY STUDENTS-DRAFT FORM FOR THE PILOT TEST
APPENDIX V. TEST OF SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE FOR SECONDARY STUDENTS (FINAL FORM)
APPENDIX VI. TEST OF SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE ANSWER SHEET
APPENDIX VII. TEST OF INTELLIGENCE ANSWER SHEET
APPENDIX Vlll. OBSERVATION SCHEDULE OF CAM
APPENDIX IX. OBSERVATION SCHEDULE OF ITM
APPENDIX X. OBSERVATION SCHEDULE OF AOM