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1. The Milieu of the Nascent Syriac Christianity
Early Christianity in Syria.
Beginning of East Syriac Christianity
The place of Edessa in the formations of the Syriac Christianity.
The language: Syriac.
Gestation and the Nascent period of East Syrian Church.
a. Biblical foundation of the East Syrian Church.
i. Visit of wise men from the east and birth of Jesus Christ.
ii. Jesus mission extended to the Diaspora Jews through his disciples.
iii. Visit of certain Greeks to meet Jesus.
iv. The Persians at the day of the Pentecost.
v. The Persian Church and St. Peter.
b. The Traditional Christian view.
The East Syrian Church and St. Thomas
c. From the writings in the early centuries
d. The account of Bar Hebraeus
The views expressed by western scholars.
Greek culture in Edessa
The Missionary Enterprises through the trade routes.
A Line Sketch in Indicating Old Silk Road through Persian Boarder during Sassanid Period.
2. The Church in Parthian Empire and Sassanid Dynasty
The nature of the Church under Parthian rule.
The persecution faced by the church during this period.
The Fall of the Parthian empire.
A Transition period in the Asian Church history.
The Sassanid Dynasty.
Persian confrontation with Roman world
Religious policy of the Sassanid dynasty.
Persecutions of religious minorities.
The Church under the Sassanid Dynasty.
Metropolitan Sees in the Sassanid Empire.
Missionary Expansion of the Church at the time of Sassanians.
Map: West Asia and the Sassanid Empire, Ca.600 A.D.
3. The Persecuted Church: The East Syrian Church
Tolerant Parthian Rulers.
The East Syrian Church under threat in Persia.
Allegations against the Christians in Persia.
Denial of Conversion from Zoroastrianism to Christianity.
The Jewish leadership against the Christian Church.
The Conflict between Constantine the Great and Shapur II.
The Claim of Constantine as the representative of the Christian Church.
The Consequence of the unfortunate letter.
Persecution under Shapur II (339-379)
i. Double Taxation.
ii. Arrest of the Catholicos
The Martyrdom of Shimun
The influence of the Martyrdom upon the noble men of the palace.
The destruction of churches and the annihilation of the Clergy.
Suppression of the Christian community by persecution.
The reign of Ardasher-II.
The reign of Yazdegard-I (420 AD)
Persecution by Bahrain V (Varahran V) (421-438),
The Persecution by Yezdgerd II (428)
The Church - State Relationship of Sixth Century
The Last years of Sassanid Empire
The Control of Government over the Church.
4. East Syrian Church: Towards a Primate
The Episcopacy of Papa Bar Aggai.
Attempts to establish the Primacy of Seleucia-Ctesiphon.
Beginning of the Seleucian Catholicate.
The Reorganization of the East Syrian Church.
The Christians accepted as a Miller in Persia (410 A.D)
Edict of Toleration
The role of Bishop Marutha of Maipherqat in convening the Synod.
The order of the Patriarchal Synods of the ESC.
The Independence of the East Syrian Church.
The Decision of the Synod.
5. The East Syrian Church And Nestorianism
Alexandrian and Antiochene schools
The Council of Ephesus.
The School of Edessa.
The School of Nisibis.
The importance of the schools of Edessa aid Nisibis.
The Nestorianism in Persian Empire.
The Synod of Acacius (486)
Antiochian Partisans in Persia.
6. The Monastic Movement of the East Syrian Church
The Root of Monastic Movement.
Origin of the East Syrian Church monasticism.
Development of Monastic moment in the East Syrian Church.
The Monastery of Beth Abe and its Library.
The East Syrian Church Monastries and Hellenistic studies.
The Life of the Ascetics.
Educational Institutions started by the Monasteries.
The Curriculum of the School.
Administration of the Schools.
Literary contribution of the Monks to the East Syrian Church.
The Missionary Enthusiasm of the Monks.
1. The East Syrian Church Under The Arabs and the Caliphate
Arabia: The land, the people and the language.
Christian beginning among Arabs.
Medium for Transmission of Christian message.
Persecution of Christians in Arabia by a Jewish Ruler-C.520
The result of interaction between Arabs and East Syrian Church.
The Arabic Language.
Inter relation between Arabic and Greek.
Bishoprics in Arabian Christian Community.
The East Syrian Church under he Caliphate.
The Prophet Mohammed and office of the Caliphate.
The Umayyad Dynasty (661-750 AD)
The Abbasid Empire (750 AD to 1258 AD)
The Christian Church during the leadership of Timothy - I
Contribution of East Syrian Church to develop Arabic as a Literary Language.
Pioneering Christian Translators.
The fall of the Abbasid Caliphate.
The Ecclesiastical position of the Church during this period.
Decline of the East Syrian Church in the Abbasid Empire.
The Attitude of Muslim rulers.
An evaluation of the Christian Church during this period.
Map - West and West Central Asia under Islam and Abbassid Caliphate Ca.800 AD
A Line Sketch during Abbassid Caliphate Boarder
2. The first Christian Mission to China
Chinese rule through Dynasties.
Chinese relationship with other countries.
Christian presence in Pre-Tang China.
The Introduction of Christianity in China.
The Visit of St. Thomas to China.
The Reference if East Syrian Christian presence.
The Entry of the East Syrian Christians in the Chinese Empire.
Authenticity of the Monument.
The attitude of the Emperor towards the Missionaries.
The Chinese East Syrian Church Texts of the T ang Period.
Beginning of persecution.
Recovery of the church (712-781 AD)
The Church in China during the period between (712-781 AD)
A new name for Christian Church
The decline of Tang Dynasty.
The reference to an organized Church in China.
Disappearance of the Christianity from China and its reasons
The influence of Confucianism
Theological issues- the Christian faith diluted and communicated.
Chinese Christian Church -- a Church of foreigners.
Dependence on Government.
End of an Era.
Map -- East Asia and Tang Dynasty China, Ca.800 AD
Aline Sketch indicating Tang Border and Great Wall
3. East Syrian Church Mission Work in Central Asia
The Religious Background of Central Asian Tribes.
Christianity and the Central Asian tribes.
Shah Kavad: The follower of Prophet Mazdak.
Shah Kavad meets East Syrian Christians.
The Christian communities in Central Asia.
The main centres of East Syrian Christian communities in Central Asia.
The Church life of the people of Samarqand
The Christian communities at Tokmak and Pishpek.
The Christian Community in the Oasis of Turfan
Dunhuang - A center of Christian, Community.
The Literary Evidences.
Tibetan Early Syrian Church Community.
Decline of Christianity
The Literature and the writings.
Organization of the Church in Central and East Asia.
The structure of the hierarchical order in the Church
The Monastic life.
The decline of Christianity in Central Asia.
The impact of East Syrian Church upon Turco-Mongol Christians.
4. East Syrian Christian missions among the Mongols
The Tribe Mongol.
The formation of Mongol Empire and Genghis Khan.
Kerait influence at Mongol Court through Royal Marriage.
East Syrian Christian presence in Mongol Empire.
Main sources of information.
The Christian Church in the Mongol Empire.
The Chagatai line in the Mongol Empire.
Hulegu and Kublai.
Sorkaktani and the line of dynastic succession.
The Christianity under Kublai Khan (1260 AD)
The Christian Church at the time of Hulegu.
The factors that checked the Mongol Advance.
The arrival of Roman Catholic Church delegates (1095-1291AD)
The Intervention of Muslim extremists.
Tamerlane, the Terror of the world to the Scene.
The Decline of Fast Syrian Christianity in Mongol Empire.
The Nature of the East Syrian Church in the Mongol Empire.
Christian Monks and Hermits in Mongol Empire.
Prominent East Syrian Christians during the Mongol rule.
East Syrian Church organization ins Mongol Empire.
Enthronement of Yaballaha -III as the Mongol Catholicos-Patriarch.
Chinese against the Mongols.
Interaction of Cultures between the East Syrian Church and the Mongol.
Map - The Mangol Empire Under Kublai Khan Ca. 1260-1300 AD
5. East Syrian Christianity in South, South-East Asia and North-East Asia
The evidences of the Christian communities.
Evidences from Manuscripts, Crosses And Inscriptions.
Paintings, Carvings and Artefacts.
The accounts of Cosmos Indicopleustes.
Anuradhapura: A centre of Christianity in Ceylon.
East Syrian Christian presence in Tibet.
Malaya Peninsula reference to Episcopal See.
The evidence for Christian Community at Dabag (Java-South Sumatra)
The Missionary activities at North -East Asia.
The evidence of ancient East Syrian Community in Korea.
The Christian Church in Japan.
The Christian Community at Nara and Kyoto.
1. The Origin of Indian Church and its back ground
Lack of documentary evidence.
The origin of the Indian Church.
Encounter of Western Christianity in India.
The geographical position of the erstwhile India
The Invasion upon India.
The entry of Parthians and King Gondophorus.
The trade relations to India from the early times.
The discovery of the direction of the Monsoon winds by Hippalus.
Trade routes related to India.
Roman Indian trade relationship.
Exchange of commercial products.
The evidence of Roman relationship with India.
a. Roman Coins in India
b. The Roman settlement at Arikamedu.
The ancient chief trade centres in India: Malabar Coast (Kerala)
The important sea ports in Kerala.
Impact through these trade ports.
Consequences of the intercourse.
Entry of other religions and their interactions
The Jewish settlements as entries for Christian presence in India.
Cochin Jewish Community -- a living example.
2. Indian Apostolate of St.Thomas and the Indian Christian Communities
Testimony of the Early Church Fathers.
Apostolate of St. Thomas according to the South Indian Tradition.
The martyrdom of St. Thomas and his Tomb.
The North Indian Tradition.
Confirmation of Indian Apostolate of Thomas from the early writings.
The supporting evidences from Indian sources.
Opinion from the modern scholars.
Penetration of East Syrian Christians to India.
Migration of Christian groups to India.
Thomas of Cana and others.
Migration under the leadership of Sapor and Prot.
The Priveliges enjoyed by the Christian community.
Plates inscribed in favour of the Tharissa Church.
Copper plate issued to Iravikorthan.
The Royal Dynasty of Villiarvattam
The Ecclesiastical life of St. Thomas Christians.
Malabar Christian community one Among the lndian Communities.
Mutual acceptance between the Hindus and Christians in India.
Other Pre sixteenth century Indian Christian communities
Coastal Regions: From Sind to Cape Comorin.
The Church and Community at Cape Comorin.
Main Land and Central India: Sind - Punjab, Patna.
Orissa- City of Butifilis
Christian Kingdoms in Central India.
Church of Udaipur in Malwa Kigdom.
Christians all over India.
Map-East Syrian Church Communities Ca.1500 AD
3. The relationship between the Indian Church and the East Syrian Church
Allusions in the Documents.
Report of the Theophilus the Indian.
Evidence from the Syriac Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans.
Mana the Bishop of Rewardashir.
Reference to Indian Christianity in Acta Maris.
Reference to India from Universal Christian Topography.
Theodore the Monk.
Meeting of Patriarch Sabrisho with the Ambassador, Bishop Maruta.
Bishops from Nestorian Hierarchy.
India among the Metropolitan Sees in the Sassanid Empire.
The order of the creation of metropolitan Sees.
The order of precedence regarding metropolitans of East Syrian Church
From the light of letters of Ishu-Yab -III.
The Metropolitan of Gate of All India.
Metropolitan, Province of India.
The Events at the time of the Patriarch Timothy-I (779-823AD)
Indian church delegation to East Syrian Church Patriarch Mar Simon.
Adoption of East Syrian Liturgy in Indian Church.
Affinity for the language Syriac.
No Indigenous Indian Liturgy.
Special Spiritual Relationship between Indian Church and Persian Church.
The Institution and position of the Title Arch Deacon.
Persian Crosses, Copper plates and inscriptions.
Commentaries, Homilies and Letters.
The account of the travellers.
Visit of Marco Polo.
The accounts of Ludovico di Varthema and Durate Barbosa.
Niranam Grandhavari (The Niranam Chronicle)
The diminishing relationship.
1. Impact on Asian continent in general
A network of urban civilizations and cultures of the World.
Nature of the ancient civilization.
The role of religion for the network of civilization and culture.
The Ecclesiastical authority of East Syrian Church.
Two streams of Missionary Endeavour.
The Media of contact.
East Syrian Church presence in different parts of Asian continent.
East Syrian Christian domination in the Mongol Empire.
The influence of the East Syrian Church in the region.
Prophetic voice of the Christian officials.
The use of Syriac language and its impact.
b.The inscriptions on the Tombstones.
c. Influence of Syriac on the vernacular language.
The recognition of the Uighur script as the official script.
Administrative Language in the Mongol Empire.
Contribution of the East Syrian Church to the Arab World.
Syriac Medical School.
Introduction of Greek Philosophy to the Asian continent through Syriac.
East Syriac Literature in different fields.
Notable works during this period.
The hieroglyphics and art forms.
Art and Architecture.
The influence upon Shamanistic Society.
Buddhist use of the Cross.
2. The impact of East Syrian Church on Malabar Coast
Semitic influence upon India
The influence of Mesopotamia upon Malabar Christians
The use of the language Syriac in India
The East Syrian Church relationship with the Indian Church
The East Syrian Church prelates in Malabar Church
The Impact of this hierarchical relationship upon the Malabar Church
Communion of East Syrian and Indian Churches
The Prelates: the Source of Spiritual strength for the community
Autonomy to Malabar Church.
Contribution to the administration of the Malabar Church.
The doctrinal influence of East Syrian Church upon the Malabar Church.
Introduction of East Syrian Church liturgy in the Malabar Church.
Influence on Sacraments, rites, feasts and fasting.
Sacraments in the East Syrian Church.
Baptism and Confirmation.
Celebration of Holy Eucharist.
Sacrament of penance.
Anointing the sick.
Death and Burial.
Educational and formation of the Holy priesthood.
Rite for Marriage.
Lent and Fasting.
The influence of Church Inscriptions and Granite Crosses.
Enhancement of the Spirituality through Asceticism
The influence upon Kerala Christian Community.
East Syrian Church influence upon pagan atmosphere.
The survival of the Christian community outside Hindu pantheon.
Enabled to develop the identity and individuality of the Indian Church.
The Missionary spirit of Thomas Christians of India.
The influence of Syriac Language and Literature.
The High Esteem Towards Syriac.
Worshipping language of Thomas Christians.
The influence of Syriac Liturgies upon the Malabar Church.
Syriac Manuscripts in India.
The Malayalam Translation of the Syriac Bible.
Relationship between Tamil and Aramic,
The suffix Ur in Malayalam and Tamil languages.
Influence of Syriac literature in Kerala.
The use of Syriac words in Malayalam.
Art forms of the Malabar Church.
Influence of Persian Art in the paintings of the ancient Churches.
Antiques, Frescoes and mural paintings of certain churches.
Some observations from these paintings.
The architecture of Malabar Church.
The influence of the East Syrian Church upon the non Christian society.
Christian influence on Hinduism.
The rise of the religious movement in south India.
The development of Bhakti doctrine in Hinduism
The concept of personal God in Sankaras teaching.
The Christian influence upon hymns of the Hindu saints.
The relation between Creator and Creation: East Syrian contribution.